The questions covered a number of themes:. Annex 1 contains a full list of the consultation questions. The overall aim of this report was to gain some sense of the balance of opinion among respondents towards the proposals, whilst also attempting to come to a clear realisation about the breadth and detail of arguments put forward both for and against the proposals.
Position statement - Salt and cancer risk - National Cancer Control Policy
The structure of the report follows the structure of the consultation paper, considering the response to each question in turn. Section 2 provides an overview of the respondents to the consultation. Finally, Annexes 1 - 6 provide further detail on the consultation questions, the responses, the respondents and issues with interpretation of the consultation questions. Frequency analysis was undertaken for all multiple choice closed questions. The figures are included within the findings and presented with additional detail in Annex 2.
Prior to the main analysis, responses were reviewed for blanks, duplicates, campaign responses, missing answers and any problems with responses such as misinterpretation of the questions. The purpose of this was both to avoid the findings being skewed and to ensure the views of respondents were represented as accurately as possible. The full justification for cleaning the data and a full list of issues with the questions, and the solutions applied is provided in Annex 3. As part of the process to ensure that the views of respondents were represented as accurately as possible, it should be noted that the frequencies and percentages in the tables for each question in the main report sections include answers that were corrected.
To be clear, corrections took place where there were clear discrepancies between the tick box answer and the comments that were provided alongside it. This includes instances where the respondent had clearly inferred a view in their comments that did not match the tick box answer they had selected e. In these cases, the data cleaning process corrected the tick box response to be in line with the comment, and incorporated these responses into the tables in the main report. These reflect the number of responses where there was doubt about the certainty of the tick box response on the basis that it did not match the point of view expressed in the comments but was not sufficiently clear to enable correction.
Further information on these responses is provided in Annex 3 and a more detailed breakdown of these responses is provided for each question in the tables in Annex 2. The overall impact of cleaning the data was reviewed. The impact varied from question to question - sometimes increasing the number of responses in favour of proposals; sometimes increasing the number of responses against proposals. However, data cleaning did not result in an overall shift in stance among respondents i.
The responses given to the open questions and the comment sections of the closed questions were analysed to identify the main themes emerging, the range of views expressed for each question and how views varied by respondent type. In general the responses submitted by organisations were more detailed and lengthy than those submitted by individuals. Due to the varying numbers of responses to each question and each answer option, descriptors are used to represent the proportion of respondents that hold a particular reason for each answer option.
It should be noted that the purpose of consultation is to understand the range of views expressed and the reasons these views are held. However, caution is needed when interpreting the responses.
Anyone could submit their views, and individuals and organisations who have a keen interest in the topic and the capacity to respond were more likely to participate than those who do not. From a public health perspective the strategy checks out. But the approach has skeptics. Walking down Baltimore Avenue in West Philadelphia, a hungry dinner-seeker has her choice of tasty, affordable Chinese takeout food.
Guidelines for a Low Sodium Diet
When I met George Walker, he was contemplating the menu at Choy Wong, a simple takeout place with a few chairs lined against the wall for customers to wait for food. Candy bars line the ordering counter, and the menus are written by hand on bright, neon poster board. This multitude of Chinese takeout options in the neighborhood was exactly what former Philadelphia mayor Michael Nutter and other city officials noted a few years ago when he had the idea for a lower-sodium initiative.
We should do something with those. The city worked with owners to use less soy sauce and fewer other high sodium seasonings in the three most popular dishes: chicken lo mein, shrimp and broccoli and General Tso chicken. Restaurant owners received training from a professional chef on ways to alter their recipes while still maintaining flavor. Aquilante says in this context, even just a little sodium reduction goes a long way. There was no financial incentive for restaurant owners to participate, and the program was completely voluntary.
Still, more than , or about half of all takeout restaurants signed up. They found that a year and a half after the restaurant owners changed their recipes, they were still making the dishes with an average of about 25 percent less sodium. Diners could have just ordered different dishes, added salt, or ate at different restaurants.
Her restaurant is working with the city — she said her customers did notice when they changed the recipe — and that made her nervous. But she said, once she started talking to people about why they changed the recipes, diners got on board. But why a program designed just for Chinese takeout places? Why not also work with pizza parlors and cheesesteak places? Tracy is writing a book about the history of MSG, or Monosodium glutamate, a chemical compound used in lots of Chinese food.
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It adds that savory, umami quality that keeps you going back for more. From there, says Tracy, a sort of panic cropped up about MSG in Chinese food, and the symptoms the doctor described became known as Chinese Restaurant Syndrome. For a very small subset of people, MSG can cause a bad reaction. The children provided their hedonic rating of the food, a preference ranking and a saltiness ranking in the laboratory. Children could rank the foods according to salt content, and they preferred the two saltier options.
A food-specific effect of salt content on intake was observed. Compared to the intermediate level 0. Structural Equation Modeling was used to model the relative weights of the determinants of intake.
Reducing the population's sodium intake: the UK Food Standards Agency's salt reduction programme
It showed that the primary driver of food intake was the child's hunger; the second most important factor was the child's hedonic rating of the food, regardless of its salt content, and the last factor was the child's preference for the particular salt content of the food. In conclusion, salt content has a positive and food-specific effect on intake; it impacted food preferences and intake differently in children.
Taking into account children's preferences for salt instead of their intake may lead to excessive added salt. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. The relationship between dietary sodium Na intake and the prevalence of some diet-related diseases has long been recognized  , .
Thus, reducing dietary sodium intake has become a public health priority in several countries. The recommended salt intake for children aged 8—11 years is 5 g per day . In France, salt intake in this population is 6 g per day and increases with age . Salt contributes to the taste of foods and makes them more enjoyable . For children, the role of food sensory properties i.
In adults, a positive association was found between perceived saltiness and preferences for snack foods with varying salt contents, and a positive link was also found between liking salty snacks and dietary sodium intake . Moreover, saltiness impacted preferences differently depending on the type of food tested, supporting the hypothesis that there are food-specific preferences for high salt content  , . In addition, another study of adults found a different impact of salt content on preferences and intake: researchers compared the intake of foods with varying salt content to their hedonic ratings after a sip-and-spit tasting.
The optimal salinity revealed by the hedonic rating was higher than the optimal level revealed by the intake data . A study of to year-old children showed that those who liked salty foods as reported by their mother ingested more salt as estimated by urinary sodium excretion . Another study showed a positive effect of salt content on food intake in 2- to 3-year-olds .
However, it could not address the role of hedonic responses in children this young for methodological reasons . One might wonder if the food intake of older children would reflect the same response to salt content variations and to what extent their intake would relate to their liking of the food.
Based on the results observed with the toddler population  , one would hypothesize that salt content would also have a positive effect on intake in an older group of children e. To the best of our knowledge, such an investigation of the influence of salt content on food hedonic ratings and intake has never been conducted in the same group of children.
This study used a within-subject crossover design. It was conducted from October to December in Dijon France.